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英语学习:Chinese Pottery  

2013-02-19 15:33:34|  分类: 【英语资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    Chinese Pottery

China has one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations—despite invasions and occasional foreign rule. A country as vast as China with so long-lasting a civilization has a complex social and visual history, within which pottery and porcelain play a major role.

 

The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broad types—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural items such as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was an important group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of which were produced in earthenware.

 

The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slipas well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.

 

Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

 

Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. To   twentieth-century eyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the form of each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragon represented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranate indicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood for wedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fish leaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Only when European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings become obscured or even lost.

 

From early times pots were used in both religious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1279-1368) an imperial ceramic factory was established at Jingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Long and often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assist in classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large and complicated picture.

 

Paragraph 2: The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broad types—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural items such as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was an important group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of which were produced in earthenware.

 

1.The word “status in the passage is closest in meaning to (2)

origin

importance

quality

design

 

2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of Chinese ceramics?(4)

The function of ceramics remained the same from dynasty to dynasty.

The use of ceramics as trade objects is better documented than the use of ceramics as ritual objects.

There was little variation in quality for any type of ceramics over time.

Some religious sculptures were made using the earthenware type of ceramics.

 

Paragraph 3: The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slipas well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.

 

3. The word “evolve in the passage is closest in meaning to(3)

divided

extended

developed

vanished

 

 

4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.(2)

While stonewares and porcelains are found throughout most historical periods, religious sculpture is limited to the ancient period.

Religious sculpture was created in most periods, but its history is less clear than that of stonewares or porcelains because some old forms continued to be used even when new ones were developed.

While stonewares and porcelains changed throughout history, religious sculpture remained uniform in form and use.

The historical development of religious sculpture is relatively unclear because religious sculptures sometimes resemble earthenware architectural ornaments.

 

5. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following concerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT: (1)

The earliest high-fired ceramics were of poor quality.

Ceramics produced during the Tang and Ming dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.

Earthenware ceramics were produced in China before stonewares were.

The Song dynasty period was notable for the production of high quality porcelain ceramics.

 

Paragraph 4: Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

 

6. The wordinstigate in the passage is closest in meaning to (4)

improved

investigated

narrowed

caused

 

7. According to paragraph 4, one consequence of the trade of Chinese ceramics was (3)

the transfer of a distinctive blue pigment from China to the Middle East

an immediate change from earthenware production to porcelain production in European countries

Chinese production of wares made for the European market

a decreased number of porcelain vessels available on the European market

 

Paragraph 5: Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. To twentieth-century eyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the form of each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragon represented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranate indicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood for wedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fish leaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Only when European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings become obscured or even lost.

 

8. The word “whereas in the passage is closest in meaning to (1)

while

previously

surprisingly

because

 

9. In paragraph 5, the author compares the designs on Chinese pots to those on Greek pots in order to 2

emphasize that while Chinese pots were decorative, Greek pots were functional

argue that the designs on Chinese pots had specific meanings and were not just decorative

argue that twentieth-century scholars are better able to understand these designs than were ancient scholars

explain how scholars have identified the meaning of specific images on Chinese pots

 

10. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 5 as being symbolically represented on Chinese ceramics?1

Chinese rulers

love of homeland

loyally to friends

success in trade

 

11. Paragraph 5 suggests which of the following about the decorations on Chinese pottery?2

They had more importance for aristocrats than for ordinary citizens.

Their significance may have remained clear had the Chinese not come under foreign influence.

They contain some of the same images that appear on Greek pots

Their significance is now as clear to twentieth century observers as it was to the early Chinese.

 

Paragraph 6: From early times pots were used in both religious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1279-1368) an imperial ceramic factory was established at Jingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Long and often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assist in classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large and complicated picture.

 

12. The word “these in the passage refers to2

religious ceremonies

descriptions

types of ware

pots

 

Paragraph 4: Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

 

13. Look at the four squares []that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Foreign trade was also responsible for certain innovations in coloring.

Where could the sentence best fit?2

 

14Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

 

Ceramics have been produced in China for a very long time.

The Chinese produced

As a result of trade

Before China had contact

Answer choices

The Chinese produced earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain pottery and they used their ceramics for a variety of utilitarian, architectural, and ceremonial purposes.

The shape and decoration of ceramics produced for religious use in China were influenced by Chinese ceramics produced for export.

As a result of trade relations, Chinese ceramic production changed and Chinese influenced the ceramics production of other countries.

Chinese burial ceramics have the longest and most varied history of production and were frequently decorated with written texts that help scholars date them.

Before China had contact with the West, the meaning of various designs used to decorate Chinese ceramics was well understood.

Ceramics made in imperial factories were used in both religious and non-religious contexts.


 

  

   参考答案:

1. 2

2. 4

3. 3

4. 2

5. 1

6. 4

7. 3

8.1

9. 2

10. 1

11. 2

12. 2

13. 2

14. The Chinese produced

As a result of trade

Before China had contact

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

    参考译文:中国的陶瓷 

尽管中国曾受到入侵,偶尔被外国统治,但是她仍然拥有世界上最源远流长的文明。中国是一个拥有悠久文明的大国,而陶瓷在其复杂的社会历史以及视觉历史中扮演了极为重要的角色。

 

在中国,每一个朝代陶瓷的功能和地位都是不同的,所以,根据它们的质量和制作年代的不同,可以是实用器物、陪葬品、贸易收藏品,甚至是礼器。对于容器、瓦片等建筑材料、模仿的物体或人物,陶瓷可以被分为3大类:陶器、炻器和瓷器。另外,瓷器中还有很重要的一类就是宗教用途的雕塑,它们多数是陶质的。

 

尽管最早的陶瓷是在陶器的温度下烧制的,但是早在公元前15世纪,就已经产生了上釉的高温炻器。六朝时期(公元265-589年),中国北方就有窑炉在生产优质的高温瓷器。从7世纪到10世纪,河北以及河南省产的白瓷逐渐的演变成为享有盛名的宋代瓷器(公元960-1279年)——长久以来被认为是中国陶瓷业历史中的巅峰时期之一。在大部分历史时期中都延续了宗教雕塑的传统,但是没有炻器和瓷器质地的雕塑描绘的那么清晰,因为它包含了一种古老的习俗,就是将刻着新的宗教形象和建筑装饰的陶器作为陪葬品。瓷器制品还包括汉朝的铅釉随葬陶俑,唐朝的三彩铅釉器皿和人物,明朝的以泥釉凸纹展现轮廓的三彩寺庙装饰物以及很多用来模仿用更贵重的材料制成的器皿的陪葬瓷器。

 

西方国家和繁荣稳定的历代中国之间的贸易促使双方互相引入了新的形式和不同的技术。其中一个意义最为深远的例子是公元9世纪出口到阿拉伯世界的精美中国瓷器所带来的影响。阿拉伯人非常仰慕这些瓷器,于是他们鼓励发展陶器以模仿瓷器,并激励人们对生产方法开展研究。中国人从中东获得了一种蓝色的颜料——一种当时在中国还没有的精制氧化钴,其中只含有少量的锰。中国自己的钴矿石含有大量的会产生暗蓝灰色的锰元素。17世纪,大量的中国装饰类瓷器通过荷兰东印度公司的交易活动而流入欧洲,这刺激和影响大量各式各样的瓷器的生产,特别是代尔夫特。中国人自己改良了很多种来自西方的特殊器皿,比如带有长壶嘴的瓶子,并专门为欧洲市场设计了一系列的装饰性图案。

 

正如希腊的壶罐上所绘的图案,今天看来也许纯粹是为了装饰用,然而事实上在当时它们都是被精心仔细的制作出来的,它们的意义在当时非常明确,中国的瓷器也是如此。以20世纪的眼光来看,中国制造的陶瓷也许仅仅是装饰品,但是对于中国人来说每个物件的形式及它的装饰都有含义和意义。龙代表了皇帝,凤代表了皇后;石榴意味着多子,双鱼意味着幸福;鸳鸯代表了婚姻的幸福美满;松树、桃树以及鹤都是长寿的象征;鱼跃出水面意味着科举考试会高中。但是当欧洲的装饰主题被引进后,这些寓意就变得不再那么流行甚至丢失了。

 

从很早的时候壶罐就被用于宗教和日常生活中了。朝廷分派了制作工作,并于元朝(公元1279-1368年)在景德镇设立了一座官窑。壶罐在一些宗教仪式上也有着重要的地位。壶罐上有很多长篇的关于不同类型的壶罐的并且通常是抒情性的描述可以帮助我们对其进行分类,虽然这些描述有时候使一幅已经大而复杂的画面显得凌乱。

 

 

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