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Types of Social Groups  

2013-02-19 17:02:25|  分类: 【英语资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Types of Social Groups

Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction. Moreover, our humanness must be sustained through social interaction—and fairly constantly so. When an association continues long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations, it is called a relationship.

 

People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

 

Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions.

 

A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.

 

Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society's cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.

 

Second, primary groups are fundamental because they provide the settings in which we meet most of our personal needs. Within them, we experience companionship, love, security, and an overall sense of well-being. Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group's primary ties has implications for the group's functioning. For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is.

 

Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group's norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from our behavior that conforms to group-devised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and as enforcers of them.

 

Paragraph 1: Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction. Moreover, our humanness must be sustained through social interaction—and fairly constantly so. When an association continues long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations, it is called a relationship.

 

1. The word “complex in the passage is closest in meaning to 2

delicate

elaborate

private

common

 

2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of a relationship? (4)

It is a structure of associations with many people.

It should be studied in the course of a social interaction.

It places great demands on people.

It develops gradually overtime.

 

Paragraph 2: People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

 

3. The word endowing in the passage is closest in meaning to (3)

leaving

exposing

providing

understanding

  

 

 

 

 

4. Which of the following can be inferred about instrumental ties from the author's mention of working with competitors in paragraph 2?(1)

Instrumental ties can develop even in situations in which people would normally not cooperate.

Instrumental ties require as much emotional investment as expressive ties.

Instrumental ties involve security, love, and acceptance.

Instrumental ties should be expected to be significant.

 

Paragraph 3: Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions.

 

5. According to paragraph 3, what do sociologists see as the main difference between primary and secondary groups?(3)

Primary groups consist of people working together, while secondary groups exist outside of work settings.

In primary groups people are seen as means, while in secondary groups people are seen as ends.

Primary groups involve personal relationships, while secondary groups are mainly practical in purpose.

Primary groups are generally small, while secondary groups often contain more than two people.

 

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's claim in paragraph 3 that primary group relationships sometimes evolve out of secondary group relationships? (4)

Secondary group relationships begin by being primary group relationships.

A secondary group relationship that is highly visible quickly becomes a primary group relationship.

Sociologists believe that only primary group relationships are important to society.

Even in secondary groups, frequent communication serves to bring people into close relationships.

 

Paragraph 4: A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.

 

7. The phrase “size up in the passage is closest in meaning to (2)

enlarge

evaluate

impress

accept

  

Paragraph 5: Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society's cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.

 

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.3

Sociologists think that cultural patterns establish connections between the individual and the larger society.

Sociologists believe that individuals with a sense of oneness bridge the gap between society and primary groups.

Sociologists think primary groups contribute to social solidarity because they help maintain a society's cultural patterns.

Sociologists believe that the cultural patterns that provide social solidarity arise as bridges from primary groups.

 

9. This passage is developed primarily by 3

drawing comparisons between theory and practice

presenting two opposing theories

defining important concepts and providing examples of them

discussing causes and their effects

 

Paragraph 7: Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group's norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from our behavior that conforms to group-devised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and as enforcers of them.

 

10. The word “deviate in the passage is closest in meaning to 4

detract

advance

select

depart

 

11. According to paragraph 7, why would a social group use shunning?1

To enforce practice of the kinds of behavior acceptable to the group

To discourage offending individuals from remaining in the group

To commend and reward the behavior of the other members of the group

To decide which behavioral norms should be passed on to the next generation

 


 

Paragraph 6: Second, primary groups are fundamental because they provide the settings in which we meet most of our personal needs. Within them, we experience companionship, love, security, and an overall sense of well-being. Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group's primary ties has implications for the group's functioning. For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is.

 

12. Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

People who do not live alone, for example, tend to make healthier life choices and develop fewer pathologies than people who live by themselves.

Where would the sentence best fit?2

 

13. Directions: Complete the table below by selecting three answer choices that are characteristics of primary groups and two answer choices that are characteristics of secondary groups. This question is worth 3 points.

 

Primary Groups

Developing socially acceptable behavior

Providing meaning for life situations

Involving close relationships

Secondary Groups

people as a means to an end

Existing for practical purposes

Answer Choices

Developing socially acceptable behavior

Working together against competitors

Experiencing pressure from outside forces

Viewing people as a means to an end

Existing for practical purposes

Providing meaning for life situations

Involving close relationships


 

 

  

参考答案:

1. 2

2. 4

3. 3

4. 1

5. 3

6. 4

7. 2

8.3

9. 3

10. 4

11. 1

12. 2

13.Primary Groups: Developing socially acceptable behavior; Providing meaning for life situations; Involving close relationships

Secondary Groups: Viewing people as a means to an end; Existing for practical purposes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

参考译文:社会群组的类型

我们和其他人一起生活在一个复杂的关系网中。我们的人性就产生于这种社会性的互动关系中,与此同时,我们的人性也必须通过经常性的社会互动才能得以保存。当两个人在比较稳定的期望值下的交流时间足够长并且形成一种联系时,这种联系就可以称为关系。

 

人与人之间的关系可以分为两种:情感纽带和工具纽带。情感纽带在当我们感性的与他人交流时形成的一种社会联系。通过和对我们来说十分重要的人交流从而得到的安全感,爱情,认可,友谊和个人价值等一系列情感。工具纽带是但我们为了达到一些目标而与他人进行合作时产生的社会联系方式。有些时候,这也许意味着变相与竞争者一起共事。更多的时候我们没有发展出任何更有意义的关系而只是简单的与其他人合作并走向终点。

 

社会学家基于感情纽带与工具纽带的特征对两者进行了区分定义并划分出两种类型的群组:主要群组和次要群组。一个主要社群包含两个或更多人,他们都喜欢直接,亲密的,有粘性的与他人的关系。感情纽带在主要社群中起主导作用。我们审视人的时候是在他们生命的走到尽头的时候,还有他们的个人价值。次要群组也需要两个以上的不过是因为非个人关系而且聚到一起都是为了一个具体的,特定的目标。而工具纽带就在其中起了重要的作用。我们关注人们在最后的价值要比他们自己的权利要多。有时主要群组的关系也会在次要群组中演化出来。这种现象一般发生在一些工作安排当中。人们在共同合作中会相互发牢骚,开玩笑,传八卦以及满足感,由此依旧发展出了亲近的关系。

 

在一些情况下主要群组的扩大会导致生活习惯的增加。首先,群组的规模非常重要。当一个人身处并消失在一个巨大的群体里时,我们很难了解到他。但是在小型的群组里我们就能获得更多的机会开展联系并建立关系。第二点,面对面的久留能让我们更好的审视他们。与另一个人近距离的观察和交谈可以有更多的机会交流细微的感情与观念。第三点,我们发展主要群组的可能性和我们经常性的持续的交流息息相关。我们与其他人的纽带经常随着我们与其他人的互动而加深并演化为深层的相关联的习惯和兴趣。

 

主要群组是人与人之间乃至整个社会的基础。第一,主要群组是社会化进程的推动力量。在主要群组里,婴儿与孩童可以了解他们所处社会的种种处世办法。像这样的群组一般会产生于我们与我们的社会生活所需要的标准和价值观体系内。社会学家通过对主要群组的观察将其比喻为独立的个体与整个社会之间的桥梁,因为他能转换,能调节,能解释一个社会文化符号并且能够表达个体的感情并最终将二者合而为一。

 

第二点,主要群组之所以是基础是因为它能提供我们解决的各人需求的种种方法。在主要群组中,我们友谊,经历爱情,获得依靠以及所有我们所希望得到的情感。毫无疑问社会学家发现一个群组的主要纽带的强弱往往暗示着这个群组的功能。比如,一群在一起比赛的队伍的主要群体纽带越强,他们的成绩就越好。

 

第三点,主要群组之所以是基础还因为他们提供强有力的社会统治工具。这之中的成员调集并分配能够维持我们的生存的极其重要的资源。如果不能分配无效,那么群组成员就会通过拒绝或是指控来摒弃那些背离组织标准的人,比如一些社会群组雇佣仲裁者(一种可以呆在群体中,但是却不能与群体成员互动的人)像一部机器一样的给那些习惯于超过这个群组所允许的范围行动的个体制定标准。更重要的是,主要群组通过构筑我们的经验来为我们的社会现实下定义。

 

通过向我们提供对我们的处境的定义,他们可以得出我们所遵守的组织所设计的意义的习性。主要群组,甚至会同时制定社会准则并不断的完善这些准则。


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