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Children and Advertising  

2013-02-19 17:05:21|  分类: 【英语资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Children and Advertising

Young children are trusting of commercial advertisements in the media, and advertisers have sometimes been accused of taking advantage of this trusting outlook. The Independent Television Commission, regulator of television advertising in the United Kingdom, has criticized advertisers for "misleadingness"—creating a wrong impression either intentionally or unintentionally—in an effort to control advertisers' use of techniques that make it difficult for children to judge the true size, action, performance, or construction of a toy.

 

General concern about misleading tactics that advertisers employ is centered on the use of exaggeration. Consumer protection groups and parents believe that children are largely ill-equipped to recognize such techniques and that often exaggeration is used at the expense of product information. Claims such as "the best" or "better than" can be subjective and misleading; even adults may be unsure as to their meaning. They represent the advertiser's opinions about the qualities of their products or brand and, as a consequence, are difficult to verify. Advertisers sometimes offset or counterbalance an exaggerated claim with a disclaimer—a qualification or condition on the claim. For example, the claim that breakfast cereal has a health benefit may be accompanied by the disclaimer "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast." However, research has shown that children often have difficulty understanding disclaimers: children may interpret the phrase "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast" to mean that the cereal is required as a necessary part of a balanced breakfast. The author George Comstock suggested that less than a quarter of children between the ages of six and eight years old understood standard disclaimers used in many toy advertisements and that disclaimers are more readily comprehended when presented in both audio and visual formats. Nevertheless, disclaimers are mainly presented in audio format only.

 

Fantasy is one of the more common techniques in advertising that could possibly mislead a young audience. Child-oriented advertisements are more likely to include magic and fantasy than advertisements aimed at adults. In a content analysis of Canadian television, the author Stephen Kline observed that nearly all commercials for character toys featured fantasy play. Children have strong imaginations and the use of fantasy brings their ideas to life, but children may not be adept enough to realize that what they are viewing is unreal. Fantasy situations and settings are frequently used to attract children's attention, particularly in food advertising. Advertisements for breakfast cereals have, for many years, been found to be especially fond of fantasy techniques, with almost nine out of ten including such content. Generally, there is uncertainty as to whether very young children can distinguish between fantasy and reality in advertising. Certainly, rational appeals in advertising aimed at children are limited, as most advertisements use emotional and indirect appeals to psychological states or associations.

 

The use of celebrities such as singers and movie stars is common in advertising. The intention is for the positively perceived attributes of the celebrity to be transferred to the advertised product and for the two to become automatically linked in the audience's mind. In children's advertising, the "celebrities" are often animated figures from popular cartoons. In the recent past, the role of celebrities in advertising to children has often been conflated with the concept of host selling. Host selling involves blending advertisements with regular programming in a way that makes it difficult   to distinguish one from the other. Host selling occurs, for example, when a children's show about a cartoon lion contains an ad in which the same lion promotes a breakfast cereal. The psychologist Dale Kunkel showed that the practice of host selling reduced children's ability to distinguish between advertising and program material. It was also found that older children responded more positively to products in host selling advertisements.

 

Regarding the appearance of celebrities in advertisements that do not involve host selling, the evidence is mixed. Researcher Charles Atkin found that children believe that the characters used to advertise breakfast cereals are knowledgeable about cereals, and children accept such characters as credible sources of nutritional information. This finding was even more marked for heavy viewers of television. In addition, children feel validated in their choice of a product when a celebrity endorses that product. A study of children in Hong Kong, however, found that the presence of celebrities in advertisements could negatively affect the children's perceptions of a product if the children did not like the celebrity in question.

 

Paragraph 1: Young children are trusting of commercial advertisements in the media, and advertisers have sometimes been accused of taking advantage of this trusting outlook. The Independent Television Commission, regulator of television advertising in the United Kingdom, has criticized advertisers for "misleadingness"—creating a wrong impression either intentionally or unintentionally—in an effort to control advertisers' use of techniques that make it difficult for children to judge the true size, action, performance, or construction of a toy.

 

1.Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 1 as being a difficult judgment for children to make about advertised toys? (2)

How big the toys are

How much the toys cost

What the toys can do

How the toys are made

 

Paragraph 2: General concern about misleading tactics that advertisers employ is centered on the use of exaggeration. Consumer protection groups and parents believe that children are largely ill-equipped to recognize such techniques and that often exaggeration is used at the expense of product information. Claims such as "the best" or "better than" can be subjective and misleading; even adults may be unsure as to their meaning. They represent the advertiser's opinions about the qualities of their products or brand and, as a consequence, are difficult to verify. Advertisers sometimes offset or counterbalance an exaggerated claim with a disclaimer—a qualification or condition on the claim. For example, the claim that breakfast cereal has a health benefit may be accompanied by the disclaimer "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast." However, research has shown that children often have difficulty understanding disclaimers: children may interpret the phrase "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast" to mean that the cereal is required as a necessary part of a balanced breakfast. The author George Comstock suggested that less than a quarter of children between the ages of six and eight years old understood standard disclaimers used in many toy advertisements and that disclaimers are more readily comprehended when presented in both audio and visual formats. Nevertheless, disclaimers are mainly presented in audio format only.

2. The word “verify” in the passage is closest in meaning to(1)

establish the truth of

approve of

understand

criticize

 

3.In paragraph 2, what is one reason that claims such as “the best” or “better than” can be misleading?(4)

They represent the opinions of adults, which are often different from those of children.

They generally involve comparisons among only a small group of products.

They reflect the attitudes of consumer protection groups rather than those of actual consumers.

They reflect the advertiser's viewpoint about the product.

 

4.Cereal advertisements that include the statement “when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast” are trying to suggest that (1)

the cereal is a desirable part of a healthful, balanced breakfast

the cereal contains equal amounts of all nutrients

cereal is a healthier breakfast than other foods are

the cereal is the most nutritious part of the breakfast meal

 

5. According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of disclaimers made in advertisements EXCEPT: (3)

They are qualifications or conditions put on a claim.

They may be used to balance exaggerations.

They are usually presented in both audio and visual formats.

They are often difficult for children to understand.

 

Paragraph 3: Fantasy is one of the more common techniques in advertising that could possibly mislead a young audience. Child-oriented advertisements are more likely to include magic and fantasy than advertisements aimed at adults. In a content analysis of Canadian television, the author Stephen Kline observed that nearly all commercials for character toys featured fantasy play. Children have strong imaginations and the use of fantasy brings their ideas to life, but children may not be adept enough to realize that what they are viewing is unreal. Fantasy situations and settings are frequently used to attract children's attention, particularly in food advertising. Advertisements for breakfast cereals have, for many years, been found to be especially fond of fantasy techniques, with almost nine out of ten including such content. Generally, there is uncertainty as to whether very young children can distinguish between fantasy and reality in advertising. Certainly, rational appeals in advertising aimed at children are limited, as most advertisements use emotional and indirect appeals to psychological states or associations.

 

6. The word “adept” in the passage is closest in meaning to (2)

responsible

skillful

patient

curious

 

7. Paragraph 3 indicates that there is uncertainty about which of the following issues involving children and fantasy in advertising? (1)

Whether children can tell if what they are seeing in an advertisement is real or fantasy

Whether children can differentiate fantasy techniques from other techniques used in advertising

Whether children realize how commonly fantasy techniques are used in advertising aimed at them

Whether children are attracted to advertisements that lack fantasy

 

 

 

8.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.3

Rational appeals in advertising are certainly limited by children's emotional immaturity and the indirect nature of their associations.

Indirect appeals to children's psychological states or associations can limit the effectiveness of rational appeals in advertising.

Rational appeals play a much smaller role in advertisements for children than emotional appeals and psychological associations do.

Rational appeals in advertising aimed at children should certainly be limited until the children are emotionally and psychologically ready.

 

Paragraph 4: The use of celebrities such as singers and movie stars is common in advertising. The intention is for the positively perceived attributes of the celebrity to be transferred to the advertised product and for the two to become automatically linked in the audience's mind. In children's advertising, the "celebrities" are often animated figures from popular cartoons. In the recent past, the role of celebrities in advertising to children has often been conflated with the concept of host selling. Host selling involves blending advertisements with regular programming in a way that makes it difficult to distinguish one from the other. Host selling occurs, for example, when a children's show about a cartoon lion contains an ad in which the same lion promotes a breakfast cereal. The psychologist Dale Kunkel showed that the practice of host selling reduced children's ability to distinguish between advertising and program material. It was also found that older children responded more positively to products in host selling advertisements.

 

9. The word "attributes" in the passage is closest in meaning to 4

evaluations

attitudes

actions

characteristics

 

10. In paragraph 4, why does the author mention a show about a cartoon lion in which an advertisement appears featuring the same lion character?(1)

To help explain what is meant by the term "host selling” and why it can be misleading to children

To explain why the role of celebrities in advertising aimed at children has often been confused with host selling

To compare the effectiveness of using animated figures with the effectiveness of using celebrities in advertisements aimed at children

To indicate how Kunkel first became interested in studying the effects of host selling on children

 

 

 

Paragraph 5: Regarding the appearance of celebrities in advertisements that do not involve host selling, the evidence is mixed. Researcher Charles Atkin found that children believe that the characters used to advertise breakfast cereals are knowledgeable about cereals, and children accept such characters as credible sources of nutritional information. This finding was even more marked for heavy viewers of television. In addition, children feel validated in their choice of a product when a celebrity endorses that product. A study of children in Hong Kong, however, found   that the presence of celebrities in advertisements could negatively affect the children's perceptions of a product if the children did not like the celebrity in question.

 

11. The word "credible” in the passage is closest in meaning to (2)

helpful

believable

valuable

familiar

 

12. According to paragraph 5, what did a study of children in Hong Kong show about the use of celebrities in advertisements aimed at children?(4)

It is most effective with children who watch a lot of television.

It has little effect if the celebrities are not familiar to most children.

It is more effective in marketing cereals and food products than in marketing other kinds of products.

It can have a negative effect if the celebrities are not popular with children.

 

Paragraph 3: Fantasy is one of the more common techniques in advertising that could possibly mislead a young audience. Child-oriented advertisements are more likely to include magic and fantasy than advertisements aimed at adults. In a content analysis of Canadian television, the author Stephen Kline observed that nearly all commercials for character toys featured fantasy play. Children have strong imaginations and the use of fantasy brings their ideas to life, but children may not be adept enough to realize that what they are viewing is unreal. Fantasy situations and settings are frequently used to attract children's attention, particularly in food advertising. Advertisements for breakfast cereals have, for many years, been found to be especially fond of fantasy techniques, with almost nine out of ten including such content. Generally, there is uncertainty as to whether very young children can distinguish between fantasy and reality in advertising. Certainly, rational appeals in advertising aimed at children are limited, as most advertisements use emotional and indirect appeals to psychological states or associations.

 

13. Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Another aspect of advertising that may especially influence children is fantasy.

Where would the sentence best fit?(1)

 

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

 

Advertisers sometimes use strategies that can mislead children.

Children may not…

The use of…

Although the use…

Answer Choices

Advertisements can be misleading to children when the advertisements use audio and visual formats that are especially appealing to children.

Children may not be able to interpret exaggerated claims made by advertisers or understand the disclaimers used to offset claims.

Although the use of celebrities is not necessarily effective in advertisements aimed at children, there is evidence that host selling can positively affect their views of a product.

Studies show that misleading tactics are used most often in commercials for breakfast cereals, with toy commercials using such tactics only slightly less frequently.

The use of fantasy is especially common in advertisements for children, but children may not be able to distinguish fantasy from reality.

Very young children are particularly influenced by host selling, while slightly older children are more readily misled by seemingly rational claims such as “the best.”


 

  

参考答案:

1. 2

2. 1

3. 4

4. 1

5. 3

6. 2

7. 1

8.3

9. 4

10. 1

11. 2

12. 4

13. 1

14. Children may not…

   The use of…

   Although the use…

  


 

  

参考译文:儿童和广告

 

儿童信任媒体中的商业广告,并且广告商因利用这种信任背景的有利条件常常受到指责。英国电视广告的调节者独立电视委员会批评广告商的误导---无论是有意还是无意的情况下创造了一个错误的印象---即广告商尽量控制对技术的使用,这样使儿童很难判断商品的真实大小,运动情况,外在表现或者如何否制造一个玩具。

 

人们普遍关心广告商夸大其词的误导策略。消费者保护组织和家长们相信孩子们大部分的不具备识别这种技巧的能力,并且他们相信这种夸大掩盖了相关产品信息。声称这是最好的比什么好都是主观的和误导。即使是成年人也许也不能确定他们的意思。它们代表了广告客户对产品质量或品牌的观点,因此,它们很难被核实。广告商有时通过补偿或者免责的形式来平衡一个夸大的说辞。举个例子,声称早餐食用谷物食品对健康是有益的可能会附带一个免责声明当早餐被部分营养平衡时。然而,研究发现儿童常常对理解免责声明有困难:儿童解释当早餐被部分营养平衡时为谷类食物是均衡早餐营养的必需成份。作者George Comstock指出在六岁到八岁之间的儿童,其中少于四分之一的儿童理解了用于大多数的玩具中的标准的免责声明。同时,当免责声明以声音和视觉的形式同时出现时是容易被理解的。然而,它们多是以声音的形式出现。

 

广告中的幻想是一种非常常见的技术以此来误导一个年轻的观众。面向儿童的广告比面向成年的广告更有可能包含了魔力和迷幻部分。通过分析加拿大的电视内容,作者Stephen kline注意到几乎所有的角色玩具广告中都以幻想剧为出发点。儿童有着丰富的想象力,运用想象力把他们的想法带入了生活,但是儿童也许不能熟练的认识到他们所看到的并不是真实的。想象力的环境和背景常常用于吸引儿童的注意力,特别是食物广告。多年以来,早餐食用谷类食物的广告,被认为是特别喜爱运用想象力的技术广告,几乎十家有九家包含了这样的内容。一般的来看,幼童区别广告中的幻想和现实部分存在着不确定性。当然,当大部分的广告对儿童运用情感和对其心理状态或该团体使用间接号召力时,广告中对儿童的理性的号召力将会显得受限制。

 

广告中常常使用名人如歌星和电影明星。目的是将感知到的对名人的积极评价转移为对我们所广告的产品的评价,使两者在观众的脑海中自动的变得有联系。在儿童的广告中,名人常常是扮演卡通中的著名人物。最近几年,对儿童来说名人在广告中的作用已经与卡通主角销售混为一谈了。主角销售需要通过一种方法来混合常规形式的广告以此使两者区别开来比较困难。举一个出现主角销售的例子,当一个儿童展示一个广告中出现的卡通狮子时,则该狮子也在售卖谷类早餐。心理学家Dale Kunkel指出主角销售的实践减弱了儿童区别广告和实物本质的能力。同样发现,年龄较大的儿童对主角销售的广告反应较大。

 

关于名人在广告中的出现并不涉及主角销售的证据是复杂的。研究员Charles Atkin发现儿童相信谷物早餐广告中使用的卡通人物对谷物是很了解的,并且,儿童接受这样的卡通人物,认为它们是营养信息的可靠来源。这一发现对沉溺电视的观众是一标示。另外,当名人赞同某一个产品并且儿童也选择这个产品时,儿童会感觉产品有效果。然而,在香港对儿童的研究发现,如果儿童不喜欢当下的名人,名人在广告中的出现可能使儿童对该产品的看法变得负面影响。

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