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Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia  

2013-02-19 17:07:42|  分类: 【英语资料】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia

Pastoralism is a lifestyle in which economic activity is based primarily on livestock. Archaeological evidence suggests that by 3000 B.C., and perhaps even earlier, there had emerged on the steppes of Inner Eurasia the distinctive types of pastoralism that were to dominate the region's history for several millennia. Here, the horse was already becoming the animal of prestige in many regions, though sheep, goats, and cattle could also play a vital role. It is the use of horses for transportation and warfare that explains why Inner Eurasian pastoralism proved the most mobile and the most militaristic of all major forms of pastoralism. The emergence and spread of pastoralism had a profound impact on the history of Inner Eurasia, and also, indirectly, on the parts of Asia and Europe just outside this area. In particular, pastoralism favors a mobile lifestyle, and this mobility helps to explain the impact of pastoralist societies on this part of the world.

 

The mobility of pastoralist societies reflects their dependence on animal-based foods. While agriculturalists rely on domesticated plants, pastoralists rely on domesticated animals. As a result, pastoralists, like carnivores in general, occupy a higher position on the food chain. All else being equal, this means they must exploit larger areas of land than do agriculturalists to secure the same amount of food, clothing, and other necessities. So pastoralism is a more extensive lifeway than farming is. However, the larger the terrain used to support a group, the harder it is to exploit that terrain while remaining in one place. So, basic ecological principles imply a strong tendency within pastoralist lifeways toward nomadism (a mobile lifestyle). As the archaeologist Roger Cribb puts it, “The greater the degree of pastoralism, the stronger the tendency toward nomadism.” A modern Turkic nomad interviewed by Cribb commented: "The more animals you have, the farther you have to move."

 

Nomadism has further consequences. It means that pastoralist societies occupy and can influence very large territories. This is particularly true of the horse pastoralism that emerged in the Inner Eurasian steppes, for this was the most mobile of all major forms of pastoralism. So, it is no accident that with the appearance of pastoralist societies there appear large areas that share similar cultural, ecological, and even linguistic features. By the late fourth millennium B.C., there is already evidence of large culture zones reaching from Eastern Europe to the western borders of Mongolia. Perhaps the most striking sign of mobility is the fact that by the third millennium B.C., most pastoralists in this huge region spoke related languages ancestral to the modern Indo-European languages. The remarkable mobility and range of pastoral societies explain, in part, why so many linguists have argued that the Indo-European languages began their astonishing expansionist career not among farmers in Anatolia (present-day Turkey), but among early pastoralists from Inner Eurasia. Such theories imply that the Indo-European languages evolved not in Neolithic (10,000 to 3,000 B.C.) Anatolia, but among the foraging communities of the cultures in the region of the Don and Dnieper rivers, which took up stock breeding and began to exploit the neighboring steppes.

 

Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict rules of portability. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot afford to accumulate large material surpluses. Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households (though they may also encourage a taste for portable goods of high value such as silks or jewelry). So, by and large, nomadism implies a high degree of self-sufficiency and inhibits the appearance of an extensive division of labor. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military conquest, they are normally too slight to generate the stable,   hereditary hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills.

 

 

Paragraph 1: Pastoralism is a lifestyle in which economic activity is based primarily on livestock. Archaeological evidence suggests that by 3000 B.C., and perhaps even earlier, there had emerged on the steppes of Inner Eurasia the distinctive types of pastoralism that were to dominate the region's history for several millennia. Here, the horse was already becoming the animal of prestige in many regions, though sheep, goats, and cattle could also play a vital role. It is the use of horses for transportation and warfare that explains why Inner Eurasian pastoralism proved the most mobile and the most militaristic of all major forms of pastoralism. The emergence and spread of pastoralism had a profound impact on the history of Inner Eurasia, and also, indirectly, on the parts of Asia and Europe just outside this area. In particular, pastoralism favors a mobile lifestyle, and this mobility helps to explain the impact of pastoralist societies on this part of the world.

 

1. The word “prestige” in the passage is closest in meaning to 2

interest

status

demand

profit

 

2. According to paragraph 1, what made it possible for Inner Eurasian pastoralism to become the most mobile and militaristic form of pastoralism?2

It involved the domestication of several types of animals.

It was based primarily on horses rather than on other animals.

It borrowed and improved upon European ideas for mobility and warfare.

It could be adapted to a wide variety of environments.

 

3. The word “profound” in the passage is closest in meaning to 4

strange

positive

direct

far-reaching

 

Paragraph 2: The mobility of pastoralist societies reflects their dependence on animal-based foods. While agriculturalists rely on domesticated plants, pastoralists rely on domesticated animals. As a result, pastoralists, like carnivores in general, occupy a higher position on the food chain. All else being equal, this means they must exploit larger areas of land than do agriculturalists to secure the same amount of food, clothing, and other necessities. So pastoralism is a more extensive lifeway than farming is. However, the larger the terrain used to support a group, the harder it is to exploit that terrain while remaining in one place. So, basic ecological principles imply a strong tendency within pastoralist lifeways toward nomadism (a mobile lifestyle). As the archaeologist Roger Cribb puts it, “The greater the degree of pastoralism, the stronger the tendency toward nomadism.” A modern Turkic nomad interviewed by Cribb   commented: "The more animals you have, the farther you have to move."


 

4. In paragraph 2, why does the author contrast pastoralists with agriculturalists?1

To explain why pastoralism requires more land than agriculturalism to support basic needs

To identify some advantages that mobile societies have over immobile societies

To demonstrate that ecological principles that apply to pastoralism do not apply to agriculturalism

To argue that agriculturalism eventually developed out of pastoralism

 

5. According to paragraph 2, pastoralists tend to4

prefer grazing their animals on agricultural lands

consume comparatively large amounts of food and clothing

avoid eating plant foods

move from place to place frequently

 

Paragraph 3: Nomadism has further consequences. It means that pastoralist societies occupy and can influence very large territories. This is particularly true of the horse pastoralism that emerged in the Inner Eurasian steppes, for this was the most mobile of all major forms of pastoralism. So, it is no accident that with the appearance of pastoralist societies there appear large areas that share similar cultural, ecological, and even linguistic features. By the late fourth millennium B.C., there is already evidence of large culture zones reaching from Eastern Europe to the western borders of Mongolia. Perhaps the most striking sign of mobility is the fact that by the third millennium B.C., most pastoralists in this huge region spoke related languages ancestral to the modern Indo-European languages. The remarkable mobility and range of pastoral societies explain, in part, why so many linguists have argued that the Indo-European languages began their astonishing expansionist career not among farmers in Anatolia (present-day Turkey), but among early pastoralists from Inner Eurasia. Such theories imply that the Indo-European languages evolved not in Neolithic (10,000 to 3,000 B.C.) Anatolia, but among the foraging communities of the cultures in the region of the Don and Dnieper rivers, which took up stock breeding and began to exploit the neighboring steppes.

 

6. In paragraph 3, why does the author discuss languages spoken in the region spanning from Eastern Europe to the western borders of Mongolia?(4)

To emphasize the frequency with which Indo-European languages changed as a result of the mobile nature of pastoralism

To indicate one method linguists use to determine that inhabitants of the Don and Dnieper river area had taken up stock breeding

To provide evidence that Indo-European languages have their roots in what is now Turkey

To provide evidence that pastoralist societies can exercise cultural influence over a large area

 

7. The word "striking” in the passage is closest in meaning to (2)

reliable

noticeable

convincing

violent

 

8. The word "exploit” in the passage is closest in meaning to (1)

use to advantage

depart from

pay attention to

travel across

 

Paragraph 4: Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict rules of portability. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot afford to accumulate large material surpluses. Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households (though they may also encourage a taste for portable goods of high value such as silks or jewelry). So, by and large, nomadism implies a high degree of self-sufficiency and inhibits the appearance of an extensive division of labor. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military conquest, they are normally too slight to generate the stable, hereditary hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills.

 

9. According to paragraph 4, the fact that pastoralist communities are subject to “strict rules of portability” encourages such communities to (2)

relocate less frequently than they would otherwise

have households that are more or less equal in wealth

become self-sufficient in the manufacture of silk and jewelry

share large material surpluses with neighboring communities

 

10. According to paragraph 4, all of the following are true of social inequality in pastoralist societies EXCEPT: (3)

It exists and has existed to some degree in most pastoral societies.

It is most marked during periods of military conquest.

It is expressed in the form of a rigid hierarchy based largely on heredity.

It is usually too insignificant to be discussed in terms of class differences.

 

11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.(4)

Despite the fact that wealth is relatively evenly distributed in pastoral societies, gender inequality still exists because only men can acquire military skills and social status.

Inequalities of gender existed in pastoralist societies until most communities began to require women to possess the same skills as men and take part in the military.

Inequalities of gender in pastoralist societies were caused by steep hierarchies of wealth and differences in military training between men and women.

In pastoral societies, gender inequality is comparatively mild because wealth is relatively evenly distributed and women have to learn most of the same skills that men do.

 

Paragraph 4: Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict rules of portability. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot afford to accumulate large material surpluses. Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households (though they may also encourage a taste for portable goods of high value such as silks or jewelry). So, by and large, nomadism implies a high degree of self-sufficiency and inhibits the   appearance of an extensive division of labor. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military conquest, they are normally too slight to generate the stable, hereditary hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills.

 

12. Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage

There is a good reason for this.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.(1)

 

 

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

 

By 3000 B.C., a distinctive form of pastoralism had appeared on the steppes of Inner Eurasia.

The domesticated horse…

Because pastoralists are…

Because pastoralism requires…

Answer Choices

The domesticated horse is primarily responsible for Inner Eurasian pastoralism's success in mobility and warfare.

As pastoralists traveled across large areas of terrain with their domesticated animals, they traded valuable material goods such as silks and jewelry.

Because pastoralists are highly mobile, they tend to have few material possessions and can influence the culture, ecology, and language of very large areas.

Because pastoralism requires a great deal of land to support its animal-based lifeway, pastoralists must continually relocate and have comparatively egalitarian societies.

Most scholars now believe that Indo-European languages probably evolved during the Neolithic period in the region of the Don and Dnieper rivers.

Pastoralist communities do not have social classes in the usual sense because they value spiritual attainment over material wealth.


 

 

参考答案:

1. 2

2. 2

3. 4

4. 1

5. 4

6. 4

7. 2

8.1

9. 2

10. 3

11. 4

12. 1

13. The domesticated horse…

Because pastoralists are…

Because pastoralism requires…


 

  

参考译文:古代内欧的畜牧

 

畜牧是一种经济活动建立在家畜的饲养上的生活方式。考古证据已经显示早在公元前3000年甚至更早的时候,位于欧洲大陆的西伯利亚大草原上已经有一些能够主导这些地区历史长达几千年的独特的畜牧类型。在这里,尽管绵羊、山羊和牛扮演了非常重要的角色,但是马已经在许多地区成为具有优势地位的动物。正是马在交通运输和战争中的使用解释了为什么欧洲大陆的畜牧主义被证明为在所有畜牧主义中最具移动性和最具军事性的一种。畜牧主义的出现和传播对欧洲内陆有一个深远的影响,同时,也间接地影响了一些在这之外的部分亚洲和欧洲地区。特别是,畜牧主义喜欢一种流动中的生活方式,这种流动性有利于解释畜牧主义社会对这部分世界的影响。

 

畜牧主义社会的流动性反映了他们对以动物为基础的食物的依赖。如果说农业靠在人工种植植物,那么畜牧就依赖于家养动物。因此,一般说来食肉性动物在这种食物链中占据了一个更高的位置。由于其他方面都是相同的,这就意味着如果他们要保证与农业相同的食物、衣物以及其他生活必需品,他们就必须开拓出比农业更大的区域。因此,畜牧业是一种比农业更宽泛的生活方式。但是,支撑一个族群的领土越大,在保持一个地方的同时开发这些领土的困难也就越大。所以,基本的生态学原理暗示了一种由畜牧主义生活方式向游牧主义生活方式转变的强大趋势。正如考古学家Roger Cribb 指出的,畜牧化的程度越深,就会有一种越趋于游牧主义的形式。Cribb 评论一个被他观察了的现代土耳其游牧民族道,你拥有越多的动物,你就不得不流动到越远的地方。

 

游牧生活有一些更重大的意义。它意味着畜牧主义社会占据着并且影响着非常大的地域。特别是在欧洲内陆的西伯利亚大草原上的以马为畜牧对象的出现更具重大意义,因为它是在所有畜牧业中移动性最强的一种。所以,畜牧社会所变现出来的在较大地域中分享类似的文化、生态以及语言特点并非偶然现象。在公元前4000年的后期,已经有证据显示存在着一个从东欧延伸到蒙古边境的大文化圈。也许在其移动性方面最具说服力的标志是在公元前3000在这个区域的大部分的畜牧者都讲一种与现代印欧语系有关的古老语言。这种值得关注的移动性和畜牧社会的地理范围在某种程度上解释了很多语言学家一直争论的一个问题,那就是为什么印欧语系并不是从Anatolia(现在的土耳其)的农民中传播开来的,而是从早期欧洲内陆的畜牧主义者中产生。这些理论暗示了印欧语系不是从新石器时代的Antolia发展而来,而是在Don Dnieper 流域内从事家畜养殖和开发邻近的西伯利亚大草原的畜牧社群中发展而来。

 

游牧主义者也用便于携带但却严格的规则下征服了畜牧主义者。如果你不断地移动,你就负担不起大量的剩余物资。这样的规则限制了畜牧主义者家用物资的多样性积累(尽管他们也鼓励积累高质量的便于携带的物品,如真丝和珠宝)。所以,大体上来说,游牧民族包含着一个高程度的自给自足社会并且限制宽泛的劳动分工。当然,不公平的财富和社会地位也同样存在,而且是存在于绝大多数的畜牧主义社会里。但是除了在军事征服时段里,他们由于过于弱小而不能形成所想象的稳定的、世袭的统治阶级。畜牧主义社会里也同样存在性别上的不公平,但是由于在大多数社群中缺少严格的财富等级制度,并且由于妇女往往具有男子的技能所以这种不公平性被弱化了。

 

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